15. LIFE ON LAND

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: How to halt and reverse biodiversity loss

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: How to halt and reverse biodiversity loss
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Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: How to halt and …  UNEP

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework: How to halt and reverse biodiversity loss

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

Introduction

Huang Runqiu, Chinese Executive Vice Chairperson of CCICED, Minister of Ecology and Environment of China,

Steven Guilbeault, International Executive Vice Chairperson of CCICED, Minister of Environment and Climate Change Canada,

Kristin Halvorsen, CCICED Vice Chairperson; Director, CICERO Center for International Climate Research,

Colleagues and friends.

The Importance of the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF)

Eight months ago, China landed the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF), with the strong support of the host Canada. In delivering the GBF, the world delivered a blueprint to protect, conserve and restore nature for the good of all humanity.

Commitments to Halt and Reverse Biodiversity Loss

In the GBF, the world made a number of significant commitments to halt and reverse biodiversity loss. These commitments include:

  1. Protecting 30 per cent of the terrestrial and marine environment.
  2. Putting 30 percent of land and marine area under active restoration by 2030.
  3. Mobilizing US$ 30 billion by 2030.

Additionally, there are other ambitious targets such as reducing nutrients introduced into the environment by at least half, reducing the risk from pesticides and hazardous chemicals by at least half, reducing the rate of introduced invasive species by 50 per cent by 2030, eradicating and controlling those already introduced, and eliminating harmful subsidies by reducing them by US$ 500 billion per year by 2030.

Importance of Early Implementation and Financing

These targets are ambitious, measurable, and time critical. With only seven years to achieve them, early implementation is crucial. This makes financing and means of implementation critical as well.

Policy Recommendations for China

This AGM’s policy recommendations to the Chinese government support the urgent implementation of biodiversity conservation. The recommendations include:

  • Updating China’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.
  • Encouraging private sector enterprises to integrate biodiversity conservation in their models.
  • Taking early action to achieve the 30×30 target.

A Special Policy Study on how China can achieve the 30×30 target domestically and support other nations will also be conducted. These recommendations are aimed at accelerating progress towards the GBF goals.

Three Key Areas for Action

1. Financing the GBF

Delivering finance, particularly to developing economies, is crucial for achieving the GBF targets. The Global Biodiversity Framework Fund was recently launched with initial contributions from Canada and the UK. It is important for potential donors to contribute to this fund. The CCICED has recommended that China explore innovative green finance mechanisms and products and integrate different sources of international financing based on this new fund.

2. Transforming Domestic Policy Setting

Domestic regulatory policy shifts are essential in changing how we interact with land and marine resources. These policy shifts can help channel resources to biodiversity without necessarily demanding financing. Policies on agricultural policy and subsidies, limiting fragmentation of biodiversity and land conversion, and reducing food waste are crucial. The CCICED has recommended that China implement regenerative agriculture and conservation-oriented farming and reallocate harmful direct budget transfers to protect biodiversity.

3. Restoring Ecosystems

In addition to conserving nature, it is important to restore ecosystems that have been degraded. China has a long history in ecosystem restoration, such as the work on the Loess Plateau. Restoration efforts have multiple benefits, including supporting China’s 2060 carbon neutrality goal. The UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration aims to restore one billion hectares of land by 2030, and China’s Shan-Shui initiative has been recognized as a flagship for this decade. Collaboration under this initiative can lead to significant achievements.

Conclusion

Biodiversity is crucial for our economies and societies, and a whole-of-society, whole-of-government approach is needed to achieve the GBF goals. Economic transformation, accounting for the value of nature, reforming trade, and including Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities are important elements of this approach. China has played a leading role in developing the GBF, and with the guidance of CCICED and support from UNEP and other stakeholders, we are confident that China will take the lead in implementing it effectively.

SDGs, Targets, and Indicators

  1. SDG 14: Life Below Water

    • Target 14.5: By 2020, conserve at least 10 percent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information.
    • Indicator: The article mentions the commitment to protect 30 percent of the marine environment by 2030.
  2. SDG 15: Life on Land

    • Target 15.1: By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains, and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements.
    • Target 15.2: By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests, and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally.
    • Target 15.5: Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity, and protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
    • Indicator: The article mentions the commitment to protect 30 percent of the terrestrial environment by 2030 and put 30 percent of land under active restoration by 2030.
  3. SDG 2: Zero Hunger

    • Target 2.4: By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding, and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality.
    • Indicator: The article mentions the need to implement regenerative agriculture and conservation-oriented farming to shift towards sustainable agriculture practices.
  4. SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

    • Target 12.4: By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water, and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.
    • Indicator: The article mentions the commitment to reduce the risk from pesticides and hazardous chemicals by at least half.
  5. SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals

    • Target 17.6: Enhance North-South, South-South, and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology, and innovation, and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, particularly at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism.
    • Indicator: The article mentions the launch of the Global Biodiversity Framework Fund and the need for international financing to support the implementation of the Global Biodiversity Framework.

Table: SDGs, Targets, and Indicators

SDGs Targets Indicators
SDG 14: Life Below Water Target 14.5: By 2020, conserve at least 10 percent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information. The commitment to protect 30 percent of the marine environment by 2030.
SDG 15: Life on Land Target 15.1: By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains, and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements. The commitment to protect 30 percent of the terrestrial environment by 2030 and put 30 percent of land under active restoration by 2030.
SDG 2: Zero Hunger Target 2.4: By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding, and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality. The need to implement regenerative agriculture and conservation-oriented farming to shift towards sustainable agriculture practices.
SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production Target 12.4: By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water, and soil to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment. The commitment to reduce the risk from pesticides and hazardous chemicals by at least half.
SDG 17: Partnerships for the Goals Target 17.6: Enhance North-South, South-South, and triangular regional and international cooperation on and access to science, technology, and innovation, and enhance knowledge sharing on mutually agreed terms, including through improved coordination among existing mechanisms, particularly at the United Nations level, and through a global technology facilitation mechanism. The launch of the Global Biodiversity Framework Fund and the need for international financing to support the implementation of the Global Biodiversity Framework.

Behold! This splendid article springs forth from the wellspring of knowledge, shaped by a wondrous proprietary AI technology that delved into a vast ocean of data, illuminating the path towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Remember that all rights are reserved by SDG Investors LLC, empowering us to champion progress together.

Source: unep.org

 

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